Jewish-Soviet Collaboration in the context of Polish History – Understanding the past through victim accounts.


Denying the importance of the role of Jews in the service of the NKVD is contrary to the basic facts established by historians. Prof. Andrzej Paczkowski formulated this thesis as “an over-representation of Jews in the UB.” Unambiguously writes about the “over-representation of Jews in the UB” by another leading IPN historian, dr hab. Jan Żaryn in his study “Wokół pogromu Kieleckiego” (Warsaw 2006, p. 86).

The very unfortunate disproportions resulting from the excessive number of Jews in the UB were also mentioned by many more reliable Jewish authors than Gross, for example Michael Chęciński, a former military information officer of the Polish People’s Army, in his 1982 book in New York, Poland. Communism, Nationalism, Anti-semitism ”(pp. 63-64).

The Jewish author of the book “Les Juifs en Pologne et Solidarność” (“Jews in Poland and Solidarity”) published in Paris in 1984, Michel Wiewiórka, wrote on p. 122: “The Ministry of the Interior, especially with the exception of the minister himself, was departments by the Jews, while Soviet advisers ensured control of its activities. “

In a number of pages of “Fear” Gross tries to completely deny from American readers any importance of the role of Jews in the UB. At the same time, however, the same Gross completely ignores the significant influences, even the domination of Jewish communists in other spheres of power, such as the judiciary, propaganda or the economy. In the more than 50-page part of the book devoted to “Żydokomuna”, even one sentence does not mention this to American readers, cynically keeping them totally ignorant of it.

The role of Jews in the security service, its uniqueness, consisted not only in excessive numbers, but also in the fact that many Jewish functionaries of the UB defiled themselves with examples of extreme cruelty, lack of any scruples and brutal violations of the law against Polish political prisoners. It is significant – the ominous role of the Jewish functionaries is visible in every more significant crime of the Security Service, from the genocidal murders in the Świętochłowice camp, through the court murders of General Fieldorf “Nile” and Captain Pilecki, to the trial of General Tatar and co-accused of senior military men.

The main culprits behind the murder of this Polish hero are, for the most part, Jewish communists. Among them was the red prosecutor Helena Wolińska (Fajga Mindla-Danielak), who decided about the unlawful arrest of General Fieldorf, and later unlawfully prolonged his arrest. The death sentence for the general in a fabricated trial was issued by a Jewish communist judge, Maria Gurowska, née Sand, daughter of Moryc and Frajda née Einseman.

Let us add to this the Jewish origin of three of the four members of the board of the Supreme Court who approved the death sentence on the Polish hero (judge Dr. Emil Merz, judge Gustaw Auscaler and prosecutor Paulina Kern). All three later lived the last years of their lives in Israel. Let us also recall that earlier in the trial of the first instance, Benjamin Wajsblech, one of the most ruthless prosecutors of Jewish origin, accused General “Nil”. Let us add that probably Józef Różański himself (Goldberg) handed the interrogator of General Fieldorf, Lieutenant Kazimierz Górski, the so-called question marks, ie properly written sets of questions to be asked by the prisoner (according to P. Lipiński, The topic of life: wine, “Gazeta Wyborcza” magazine, November 18, 1994).

In this context, it is worth recalling a fragment of Sławomir Bilak’s conversation with Maria Fieldorf-Czarska, the daughter of the murdered general.

She said, among other things: “I am asking why nobody says that only Jews were involved in my father’s case? I do not know why the Jews in Poland accused and tried the Polish citizen ”(quoted after: Temida’s eyes are closed. Nobody will answer for the death of my father,“ Our Poland ”, February 24, 1999).

Let us now recall the shameful matter of passing the death sentence to one of the greatest Polish heroes, Captain Witold Pilecki, and his execution in 1948. A man who voluntarily allowed himself to be arrested in order to go to Auschwitz and investigate the truth about the situation in the camp, and later became the founder of the first camp underground. An officer whom the eminent English historian Michael Foot called “the conscience of Europe fighting against the Nazis” and one of the most outstanding and brave figures of the European Resistance Movement. Well – as Tadeusz M. Płużański wrote about the case of Captain Pilecki and his co-accused in the trial:

 “The sentences were passed earlier,” Józef Goldberg Różański, the director of the investigative department of the Ministry of Public Security, issued them. During one of the interrogations, he told Płużański: “Nothing can save you. I have two death sentences. They will come, lead them fucking in the head, and it will be such an ordinary human death“ (cf. TM Płużański, Prosecutor for special tasks, ”It’s Time“, October 5, 2002).

It is also worth noting that one of the members of the college of the Supreme Military Court, who on May 3, 1948, approved the death sentence on Pilecki, executed on May 25, 1948, was Judge Leo Hochberg, son of Saul Szoel (according to TM Płużański, Lawyers of the Second Polish Republic, communist criminals, “High Time”, October 27, 2001).

I will omit here a broader account of one of the most frequently recalled crimes – the genocidal murder of about 1,650 innocent prisoners in less than a year by Salomon Morel and his Jewish torturers from the UB (see the book by the author of the very reliable Jewish self-reckoning, John Sack, entitled “Oko za oko “, Gliwice 1995).

Let me just remind you here of one of S. Morel’s favorite “games” of the genocidal “executioner from Świętochłowice”, consisting in setting up pyramids of people who were told to lie on top of each other in fours. When the pile of bodies was large enough, he would jump on them to add even more weight. After such “games”, the people at the top of the pile came out with broken ribs at best, while the bottom four ended up in the morgue.

The later crimes committed by Morel against young Polish political prisoners “re-educated” in the camp in Jaworzno are much less known. There, Morel replaced Ivan Mordasov as the commander of the NKVD captain. In Marek J. Chodakiewicz’s book, “Jews and Poles 1918-1945” (Warsaw 2000, p. 410), we read:

“Between 1945 and 1949, about 10,000 prisoners died in the camp in Jaworzno.” These terrifying figures sound unbelievable and require thorough verification, although Chodakiewicz quotes them after the source work of M. Wyrwich (“Łagier Jaworzno”, Warsaw 1995).

Various accounts confirm, in any case, the exceptional cruelty displayed by Commandant Morel towards young Polish prisoners. Starting with his greeting subsequent transports of juvenile prisoners with a typical greeting:

“Look at the sun, some people see it for the last time!” Or with the words: “You are bandits, we will show you here what it means to fight against the people’s power.”

(Both quotations after the text of the “Open letter to the Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland” written by Mieczysław Wieła (“Jaworzniacy” No. 2/29 of February 1999).

In addition to his physical torments, Morel liked to inflict various mental torments on his victim. For example, he had him write a thousand times: “I hate Piłsudski” (according to M. Wyrwich, “Łagier Jaworzno”, Warsaw 1995, p. 90).

The genocidal criminal S. Morel received a Polish pension – approximately 5,000. PLN.

The leading historian of the Institute of National Remembrance, dr hab. Jan Żaryn wrote recently:

“The experiences of 1944-1945 only strengthened the stereotype of Żydokomuna. “The NKVD, with the help of the remaining Jews, organizes bloody orgies,” reported Władysław Liniarski “Mścisław”, commander of the AK District in Białystok in January 1945 to “Polish London” (…).

After the war, Poles, using the slogan “Żydokomuna”, used the stereotype created by the Jews themselves. Therefore, Jews became jointly responsible for the suffering of Poles, including the loss – once again – of state independence.

The families heard the details of the tortures that their relatives – often soldiers of the independence underground – were subjected to in the security dungeons. “When I left the prison, I was immediately taken upstairs and the NKVD officer Faber [Samuel Faber – footnote by J. Żaryn] (who he was, I don’t know if he was a Pole or a Russian, certainly a Jew) (…) ordered me to be tied. They tied my mouth with a rag and between my arms and legs they put a stick on which they hung me, and then they started pouring pus into my nose. After a while, they stopped. I did not lose consciousness, so I felt everything to the end. I got a hemorrhage from that (…) ‘, recalled Jakub Górski,’ Jurand ‘, a Home Army soldier (…).

Another activist of the independence underground, Mieczysław Grygorcewicz, remembered the first days of his stay in the NKVD and UB arrest in Warsaw:

“(…) At first I did not answer the questions asked by Józef Światło – the head of the Provincial Security Office, I was indifferent to all threats and screams, I was overcome by apathy, I faced a vision of death. After all, I am in the hands of the enemy, and in the hands of Jews, who were present in the UB. I felt a great disgust with them, after all I had to deal with social scum, mostly brought up in the nalewkowskie gutter ”.

“Józef Światło – a Jew by origin, having a gun in his hand, told me that if I did not give my place of residence, he would shoot me in the head (…)”.

The light was brought by Halicki, the head of the investigative section, who was also a Jew, and he started a preliminary investigation (…). The UB officers changed frequently (…). One of them, in particular, spoke to me brutally and rude, he threatened with the death penalty without trial. As I learned later from the investigator, Lieutenant Łojka, it was Józef Różański himself (Józef Goldberg), deputy Radkiewicz, Minister of Security.

In such a situation and among this group of security services, I was prepared for the worst, even to be shot (…) ”. (quoted from J. Żaryn, Hierarchy of the Catholic Church towards Polish-Jewish relations in 1945-1947, in: “Wokół pogromu Kieleckiego”, Warsaw 2006, pp. 86-88)“.

Let us recall that Józef Różański (Goldberg) mentioned here, director of the Investigative Department at the Ministry of Public Security, has earned a well-deserved fame as the cruelest security officer. From the former Home Army officer Kazimierz Moczarski, who was one of the victims of the “infernal investigation” under Różański’s supervision, we know what the methods of torturing prisoners interrogated in the Ministry of Public Security were. Among 49 types of ill-treatment and torture to which he was subjected, Moczarski mentioned, among others:

“1. hitting specially sensitive areas of the body with a rubber truncheon (e.g. the bridge of the nose, chin and mucous glands, protruding parts of the shoulder blades, etc.);

  • beating with a whip, covered in the so-called sticky gum, the tops of bare feet – a particularly painful torture operation;
  • hitting the heels with a rubber truncheon (a series of 10 strokes per heel – several times a day);
  • plucking hair from the temples and the neck (so-called goose plucking), from the chin, from the breast, and from the perineum and genitals;
  • crushing fingers between three pencils (…);
  • burning a hot cigarette around the mouth and eyes; (…)
  • forcing them to sleep for 7-9 days (…) ”(quoted after K. Moczarski, Hell’s Investigation,“ Rebirth ”, January 21, 1989).

The dignitary of the Ministry of Public Security – Józef Światło supervised the secret prison in Miedzeszyn, where the methods of extracting testimonies included, among others, condemning to kneeling on a brick floor with hands raised for 5 hours, chasing naked through corridors with simultaneous flogging with steel bars, beating with a club woven of steel wires (according to T. Grotowicz, Józef Światło, “Our Poland”, July 22, 1998).

We will not find a single sentence of information about all these atrocities and crimes of Jewish executioners from the UB in the books of JT Gross, who wrote so readily and extensively about the crimes committed by Poles against Jews.

It is worth recalling that Różański (Goldberg) was responsible for the operation of a secret group of secret police murderers who, on his order, secretly murdered selected Home Army soldiers and people kidnapped from the street in the forest. This is how, among others, formally released from custody, Fr. Antoni Dąbrowski was murdered, former chaplain of the 27th Volhynian Infantry Division of the Home Army (27th Infantry Division of the Home Army) – a large infantry unit of the Home Army formed by the forces of the Volhynia District as part of the Operation “Storm”. In March 1944, the 27th Infantry Division of the Home Army numbered about 6,000 soldiers.

Among those murdered after being taken from prison to the forest were, among others Colonel of the Home Army, Aleksander Bielecki, from whom the secret police failed to force the expected testimony, and his wife.

It is worth recalling that the Jewish communist Leon Kasman, for many years the editor-in-chief of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers ‘Party, “Trybuna Ludu”, was the activist who most vehemently called for intensifying repression against political opponents during the session of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers’ Party in October 1944.

He “became famous” by saying: “The horror is overwhelmed that in this Poland, where the party is a hegemon, not even one head has fallen” (quoted after P. Lipiński, Bolesław Niejasny, Magazyn Gazeta Wyborcza, May 3, 2000).

And the heads of Polish patriots, mainly the Home Army soldiers, began to decline at an accelerated pace as a result of the first great wave of terror against the nation that was unleashed at that time.

And so, for example, in December 1944, five Home Army soldiers were shot in the basement of the house in front of the Lublin Castle. Their case was handled by a military prosecutor of Jewish nationality (according to Marek Kolasiński, a judge of the Court of Appeal in Lublin, “Report on court murders”, Warsaw 1994, p. 108).

Bright examples of the cruelty of Jewish investigators towards the interrogated Polish officers can be found in the so-called the Bydgoszcz case.

Jerzy Poksiński described, for example, how “Capt. Mateusz Frydman grabbed the interrogated officers by the throat and beat their head against the walls, he said to Major Krzysik:

“I will shoot you and I will tomb you, so that Anders cannot erect a monument” (see J. Poksiński, “TUN. Tatar – Utnik – Nowicki”, Warsaw 1992, p. 38).

In the Bydgoszcz case, Colonel Józef Meksz died martyred. In the course of another fabricated case of innocent officers, the so-called of the Zamość-Bydgoszcz affair, Colonel Julian Załęski, tortured in prison, died. He lost his life as a victim of cruel tortures ordered by one of the most ruthless Jewish torturers – the head of the Main Information Board of the Polish Army, Col. Stefan Kuhl, known as the “bloody Kuhl” (see AK Kunert – J. Poksiński, Col. Stefan Kuhl, “Życie Warszawy”, February 24, 1993).

Director of the Department of the 5th Ministry of Public Security, a Jewish communist, Luna Brystygierowa, specializing in the persecution of the Catholic Church and patriotic intelligentsia, was called “Blood Luna” because of the extreme ruthlessness with which she interrogated prisoners. A soldier of the Home Army and former political prisoner Anna Rószkiewicz-Litwinowiczowa wrote in her memoirs that:

Julia Brystygierowa was famous for the sadistic torture inflicted on young prisoners. During the interrogations in Lviv, she put the prisoners’ genitals into a drawer, slamming it sharply. She was sexually perverted, and here she had a chance to show off ”(see A. Rószkiewicz-Litwinowiczowa, Difficult decisions. Counter-intelligence of the Home Army Warsaw District 1943-1944. Prison 1949-1954, Warsaw 1991, p. 106).

One of the most disgraceful cases was the arrest in 1947, on the basis of fabricated accusations, of Major Mieczysław Słaby, a former Westerplatian physician, the most famous heroic formation of the Polish defense war of 1939.

After only a few months of interrogation, Major Słaby died at the age of only 42 as a result of injuries sustained during the investigation. His case was handled by the deputy prosecutor Major S.D. Mojsezon (Mojżeszowicz), a Jew by origin.

He wrote, in his own hand, the alleged “testimony” of Major Słaby. Weak Słaby, admitted that he “acted to the detriment of the Polish state”. He was persuaded with appropriate methods to sign the testimony formulated by prosecutor Mojsezon. The tortured major died before being convicted and sentenced.

Another example is the case of the behind-the-scenes death in the building of the Ministry of Public Security of one of the heroes of the book by Aleksander Kamiński from the “Zośka” battalion – Jan Rodowicz pseud. “Anoda”. The investigation of his death was canceled twice (in 1949 and 1994).

He was one of the characters famous for his incredible courage, dedication and the ability to take risks. For his military merits, he was awarded the Cross of Valor (twice) and the Virtuti Militari Cross.

A multi-talented student, he studied at the Faculty of Architecture of the Warsaw University of Technology when he fell victim to repression. He was arrested on Christmas Eve 1948 and taken to the secret police office. His interrogations were led by the head of the 5th Department of the Ministry of Public Security, Major of Jewish origin Wiktor Herer (later a professor of economics).

Only two weeks after the arrest, the legendary “Anoda” was killed in the building of the Ministry of Public Security. From the information submitted to the prosecutor’s office by another member of the “Zośka” battalion, imprisoned at the same time as “Anoda”, Rodowicz was shot by Bronisław K. from the Ministry of Public Security.

Former MBP chief Wiktor Herer denied the allegation of the murder of “Anoda.” He upheld the old official version that “Anoda” committed suicide by jumping on the sill of an open window and jumping from the fourth floor.

This version seems quite unlikely, if only because it was the middle of winter then – on January 7, 1949. So how to explain the claim that at that time there was an open window in the MBP building on the fourth floor?

Generally, the numerous crimes committed in various provinces under the command and command of local Jewish security service officers are still insufficiently known. A typical example in this respect is the case of crimes against 16 Poles – demobilized soldiers of the Home Army and NSZ, committed in Siedlce on April 12 and 13, 1945.

In the course of prosecution proceedings in the 1990s, it was unquestionably proven that the murder was committed by employees of the County Public Security Office in Siedlce. At the time of the crime, the head of the then UB in Siedlce was Lieutenant Edward Słowik, an officer of Jewish nationality who had Major Timoshenko as his “adviser” to the NKVD officer.

At the time of the crime, out of about 50 employees of the then Siedlce UB, about 20 were of Jewish nationality. According to historian Marek J. Chodakiewicz, most of the participants of the kidnappings and murders of 16 former soldiers of the independence underground in Siedlce, including Braun (Bronek) Blumsztajn and Hersz Blumsztajn, were transferred to other places on duty (cf. MJ Chodakiewicz, op. Cit., P. 466).

Among the criminal investigation officers of Jewish origin, it is worth mentioning separately Major (Izaak) Ignacy Maciechowski, deputy head of Department IV of the GZI in 1949-1951. According to the Mazur’s commission report, he was conducting an investigation against General Tatar, Col. Uziębło, Col. Sidorski, Col. Barbasiewicz, Col. Jurkowski and Maj. Wacek using very brutal interrogation methods. Several of the officers tortured by Maciechowski, after pleading guilty, were sentenced to death by Stalinist courts, Colonel Ścibor, Colonel Barbasiewicz and Colonel Sidorski (see T. Grotowicz, Ignacy Maciechowski, “Our Poland” of February 10, 1999).

A separate, extensive topic, which I present briefly here, is the case of numerous responsible judges of Jewish origin, such as the aforementioned prosecutor Helena Wolińska (Fajga Mindla-Danielak) or judge Maria Gurowska.

Let us list here, among others such people as the deputy prosecutor general of the People’s Republic of Poland, Henryk Podlaski, the deputy head of the Supreme Military Court and the head of the Military Board, Oskar Szyja Karliner (he led to such a management of positions in this board by officers of Jewish origin that this institution was maliciously called the “Chief Rabbinate of the Polish Army”) , the head of the Main Information Board of the Polish Army, Col. Stefan Kuhl, prosecutor Benjamin Wajsblech, judge Stefan Michnik, Lt. Filip Barski (Badner), Capt. Franciszek Kapczuk (Nataniela Trau), prosecutor Henryk Holder, judge of the Supreme Military Court Marcin Danzig, judge Col. Zygmunt Wizelberg, judge Aleksander Warecki (Weishaupt), prosecutor Col. Kazimierz Graff, Judge Emil Merz, Col. Józef Feldman, Col. Maksymilian Lityński, Col. Marian Frenkel, Col. Naum Lewandowski, prosecutors in the General Prosecutor’s Office: Benedykt Jodelis, Paulina Kern, Col. Feliks Aspis, Col. Eugeniusz Landsberg.

It is enough to recall that in 1968 alone, about 1,000 people left the former government apparatus, disgraced by their participation in the secret services of the UB, etc. (according to information provided on March 12, 1993 in a television broadcast by Colonel J. Poksiński, an outstanding researcher of recent history).

And let us remind you that some of the Jewish security service officers and murderers, the most discredited by the actions of the terror apparatus, left Poland earlier, in the first years after 1956. Let us compare these data with JT Gross, who tried to diminish the role of Jews in the repression apparatus, writing remarks about “a few dozens of Jews “,” acting as Stalin’s henchmen. “

I will only briefly mention a few less luminous figures from the judiciary. Among the most ruthless prosecutors of Jewish origin was Kazimierz Graff, son of the merchant Maurycy Graff and teacher Gustawa Simoberg, former chairman of the Warsaw Academic Antigett Committee in 1937-1938.

On February 26, 1946, as the vice-prosecutor of the Emergency Cases Department of the District Court in Siedlce, during an away session in Sokołów Podlaski, he sentenced 10 Home Army soldiers to death.

The very next day, Graff ordered the execution of convicted Home Army soldiers “so that they would not have time to submit a plea for pardon, which they were entitled to by law” (according to: TM Płużański, “The case of prosecutor Graff”, “High Time”, 6 July 2002).

Thanks to his ruthlessness, after a series of court murders, Graff was quickly promoted to the rank of Deputy Chief Military Prosecutor in the rank of colonel. He was the main prosecutor in the case of the Polish Underground Army commanded by Cpt. Stanisław Sojczyński “Warszyca”, leading to the death sentences against “Warszyca” and a number of other co-accused.

The Main Commission for the Investigation of Crimes against the Polish Nation established that “there was a judicial murder in this case” (cf. ibid.). Graff “became famous”, among others as a co-author of the indictment in the fabricated trial of General S. Tatar and other senior soldiers, which was to discover a “conspiracy in the army” (cf. ibid.).

However, the indictment prepared by him was considered to contain many accusations “too naive” and had to be processed by two more experienced than Graff specialists from Stalinist investigations – A. Fejgin and J. Różański.

The court murderer Stefan Michnik, brother of the current editor-in-chief of “Gazeta Wyborcza” Adam Michnik, was immediately promoted at the age of only 27 to the rank of captain, even though he did not have a high school diploma.

He “deserved” such his zeal in fabricated political trials. As a second lieutenant, he was a judge in the fabricated trials of Maj. Zefiryn Machalla, Col. Maksymilian Chojecki, Maj. Jerzy Lewandowski, Col. Stanisław Wecki, Maj. Zenon Tarasiewicz, Lt. Romuald Sidorski, Lt. Alexander Kowalski.

Stefan Michnik sentenced Maj. Z. Machalla to death at the age of 37, who was executed on January 10, 1952 (he was rehabilitated posthumously on May 4, 1956).

On December 8, 1954, Col. Stanisław Wecki, who was sentenced by Michnik to a 13-year prison sentence, died less than a month after his interruption in the execution of the prison sentence. Fortunately, the death sentences were not carried out on Col. M. Chojecki and Maj. J. Lewandowski. sentenced to death by S. Michnik. 

In 1951 Major Karol Sęk was executed on the basis of the sentence of S. Michnik (in the trial of NSZ Podlasie – the crime was completely unknown.

This is how Stefan Michnik sentenced NSZ soldiers to death.

Karol Sęk is one of the most beautiful patriotic cards. At the age of 16, he broke the German emblem, and later participated in the Polish-Bolshevik war. During World War II, a prisoner of Majdanek, a soldier of NOW and NSZ. Life for Poland was interrupted on June 7, 1952 by the decision of Stefan Michnik, brother of Adam Michnik. Karol Sęk was murdered in prison.

In the same trial of the Podlasie NSZ, Stefan Michnik issued two more death sentences: one was carried out (on Stanisław Okuniński), another (on Tadeusz Moniuszko) was commuted to life imprisonment. In Życie from February 11, 1999, it was stated that, according to the editorial staff, S. Michnik had handed down about 20 death sentences in political trials.

Prof. Witold Kulesza, the then head of the investigative department of the Institute of National Remembrance, loudly announced that the Institute of National Remembrance would demand the extradition of Stefan Michnik.

I wonder what these reasons (was it the concern not to weaken Adam Michnik’s “authority”?) made them withdraw from this announcement? It is worth asking why the authorities of the Institute of National Remembrance lacked elementary honesty and courage to publicly inform about the reasons for withdrawing from the announced demands for the extradition of S. Michnik?

Among other court murderers it is worth mentioning, among others about the case of the head of the Military Prosecutor’s Office in Warsaw, Col. Eugeniusz Landsberg. He was saved by Poles during the war thanks to the shelter given to him by the Catholic Church. He repaid for them with numerous death sentences on Polish patriots in fabricated political trials.

For the Stalinist Soviet dignitaries in charge of matters in Poland, Stalinist Soviet dignitaries who were in charge of matters in Poland, the best guarantee of determination in the fight against Polish patriots from the independence underground. And in this respect, they were not disappointed.

Among Jewish security officers, judges and prosecutors, there was a particularly large number of the most inexorable “conquerors” of the Polish Home Army underground, ready to construct the most absurd accusations against him.

Typical in this respect was Judge Dawid Rozenfeld, who justified the sentence which sentenced only to life imprisonment a Gestapo agent guilty of denunciation and death of many soldiers and officers of the Home Army, complicit in handing over to the Gestapo General Stefan Rowecki “Grot”. As a mitigating circumstance, Judge Rozenfeld considered in the case of this agent the following:

”According to the Provincial Court, the accused is a victim of the criminal activity of the Home Army leadership, which, as we know now, cooperated with the Gestapo, served the Gestapo, and together with the Gestapo fought against the greater part of the Polish nation in its struggle for national and social liberation” (quoted in: J. Piłek, Stalinists are among us, in: Gazeta Polska, August 4, 1994).


Let us add to the above descriptions the role of some lawyers of Jewish origin. A special type of “defender” in political trials was represented, for example, by the lawyer of Jewish origin, Mieczysław (Mojżesz) Maślanko. He “defended” his charges in such a way that he compared Moczarski’s group to the Gestapo and the Abwehr, claiming that ” all these institutions were established by having classes who want to stay the wheel of history ” (according to: TM Płużański, Advocacy, in: “The Highest Time “, January 26, 2003).

In a similar way, Maślanko “defended” – accusing the head of the 2nd Main Directorate of WiN Col. Franciszek Niepokólczycki, the famous “Łupaszka”, that is Maj. Zygmunt Szendzielarz, commander of the 5th Vilnius Brigade of the Home Army, nationalist Adam Doboszyński, Captain Witold Pilecki and co-defendants, General August Emil Fieldorf “Nil” (Maślanko agreed with most of the alleged evidence of “guilt” of gen. “Nil”).

According to the last delegate of the Government in London to Poland, Stefan Korboński, in the case of Pilecki and his co-defendants, “Różański made the case clear: the duty of the council of defense lawyers (chaired by Maślanko – footnote by TM Płużański) is to gather evidence against the accused” (cf. ibid.).

The unworthy behavior of M. Maślanko, who did everything to drown the accused whom he was supposed to defend, was all the more outrageous as he himself was saved from death in Oświęcim by the famous nationalist Jan Mosdorf.

A “defender” similar to Maślanko, or rather an “attorney” in political matters, was another lawyer of Jewish origin, working in a joint law office with Maślanko – Edward Rettinger.

He ‘defended’ Moczarski and his colleagues with the words: ‘(…) it was a mess of crime whose miasms still poison our souls today.

It was a puddle of crime, in which the frozen blood still sticks to the hands ”( cf. ibid.). Another such pseudo-defender was Marian Rozenblitt, who was already active in the judiciary of the Polish army in the USSR.

Gestapo and SB confidants were active in Kraków, including Jewish lawyers Maurycy Wiener and Karol Buczyński. The provincial prosecutor in Kraków was Rek, and his deputies were Gołda, Józef Skwierawski, and Krystyna Pałkówna. They acted jointly and in agreement with attorneys Wiener and Buczyński, discontinuing the investigations of common bandits for heavy money. The rich thugs were “recommended” by Bruno Miecugow, father of Grzegorz Miecugow, TVN journalist. Bruno Miecugow, as a signatory of the shameful list of 53 writers on the death sentences in the trial of the “Krakow Curia”, sent with the help of a Jewish doctor M. Orwid (psychiatry) to the Krakow’s Kobierzyn (psychiatric hospital) of the great Polish architect and patriot Wiesław Zgrzebnicki (“Zgrzesia”) for publicly condemning the signature of Bruno Miecugow in the shame of 53 Krakow writers in the Krakow Journalists’ Club “Pod Gruszką”. The disgrace “53” was also signed by, among others Wisława Szymborska and Sławomir Mrożek, from the decision of Card. Stanisław Dziwisz, buried in the National Pantheon in the crypt under the Church of St. Peter and Paul in Krakow.

Wiesław Zgrzebnicki, tormented by the female psychiatrist from Kraków, died at the age of 40.

A Krakow doctor, Ewa Hołowiecka, the secretary of the Polish United Workers’ Party at the Medical Academy of Krakow was appointed to help Bruno Miecugow.

War crimes should be recalled:

Crime in Naliboki – massacre of Polish inhabitants of the village of Naliboki committed by units of Soviet and Jewish partisans on May 8, 1943 under the command of Paweł Gulewicz from the Brigade of Stalin, including a group consisting of people of Jewish nationality (it is being determined whether it was part of the unit under the command of Tevye Bielski or Sholem Zorin).

Tewje Bielski or Tuwia Bielski and Anatol Bielski (born May 8, 1906 in Stankiewiczy near Nowogródek, died 1987 in New York) – Polish Jews, creators (together with three brothers) and commanders of the Jewish partisan unit in the Nabolicka forests during World War II .

The church, school, post office, fire station and some residential houses were burned down, the rest of the settlement was plundered. Several attackers were also killed. According to Soviet sources, the number of Poles killed was estimated at 250; on August 6, 1943, the village was again pacified, this time by German troops as part of the so-called “Operation Hermann”, and its inhabitants were deported deep into the Reich for forced labor.

Crime in Koniuchy – the mass murder of at least 38 Polish inhabitants (men, women and children; the youngest was 2 years old) of the village of Koniuchy (today in the Lithuanian state, formerly in the Second Polish Republic in the Nowogródek voivodeship, Lidzki poviat) committed on January 29, 1944 by Soviet partisans (Russians and Lithuanians) and Jewish.

During the pogrom, most of the houses in the village were burnt, apart from the murdered, at least a dozen or so inhabitants were injured, and at least one of them later died of wounds. Before the attack, the village was inhabited by about 300 Polish inhabitants, there were about 60 buildings in it. Previously, Soviet partisans often commandeered food, clothes and cattle from the villagers, which is why the local inhabitants set up a small volunteer self-defense unit.

The Institute of National Remembrance is investigating the case of the Koniuchy massacre. So far it has been established that the attack was carried out by Soviet partisan units stationed in the Rudnicka Forest: “Death to the Fascists” and “Margirio”, which are part of the Vilnius Brigade of the Lithuanian Guerrilla Movement, and “Death to the Occupant”, part of the Kaunas Brigade.

These units included Russians and Lithuanians, most of the “Death to the Occupant” unit was made up of Jews and Red Army soldiers escaping from POW camps. The Jewish unit consisted of 50 people, and the Russian-Lithuanian units – about 70 people. The commanders were Jakub Penner and Samuel Kaplinsky.

According to one of the attackers, Chaim Lazar, the aim of the operation was to kill the entire population, including children, as an example to intimidate the rest of the villages. According to the findings of the Canadian Polish Congress, which were the basis for the initiation of the investigation, the number of dead was greater (approx. 130).

The attack on Koniuchy and the murder of the local civilian population was the largest of a series of similar actions carried out in 1943 and 1944 by Soviet and Jewish partisans in the Rudnicka and Nalibocka forests (e.g. the massacre of the population in the town of Naliboki).

In May 2004, a monument commemorating the victims was unveiled in Koniuchy, with 34 established names of the victims.

In post-war studies, based on, inter alia, Jewish accounts of participants in the attack on the countryside (eg Izaak Chaim and Chaim Lazar) often provided information about the murder of all 300 inhabitants, as well as about fights with a unit of German soldiers (in other sources of the Lithuanian police).

However, later studies did not confirm the presence of Germans or policemen in the village, and also questioned the thesis that all inhabitants of the village had died (some of the inhabitants escaped from the massacre and survived the war). Information stating that all Polish inhabitants of the village of Koniuchy were murdered also appeared in the reports of the structures of the Polish Underground State at that time.

Documents, sources, citations:

prof. Jerzy Robert Nowak, (“Nasz Dziennik”, August 18, 2006)

Author Aleksander Szumański


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